Saturday Magazine reported in 1835, that"The next remarkable frost recorded is that of 1608." It began on the 8th of December, & continued until the 15th; a thaw then ensued until the 22nd, when it began "againe to freeze violently, so as diverse persons went halfe way over the Thames upon the ice; & the 30th of December... then all sorts of men, women, & children, went boldly upon the ice in most parts; some shot at prickes; others bowled & danced, with other variable pastimes, by reason of which concourse of people, there wore many that set up boothes & standings upon the ice, as fruit-sellers, victuallers, that sold beere & wine, shoomakers, & a barber's tent, &c." In these tents were fires... Unlicensed gambling, drinking & dancing were held at the fairs, along with stalls selling food & drink, skittle alleys & fairground rides."
1677 Abraham Danielsz. Hondius (Dutch-born English artist, 1625–1691) The Frozen Thames and a Detail. The ice in 1677 was probably a little too uneven to set up a Skittles Alley.
Paintings & prints of the Thames Frost fairs shows that Nine Pins and Skittle Alleys were consistently part of the entertainments on the ice, when the Thames froze over. The River Thames Frost Fairs were held at London in several winters between the 17C - 19C, when the river froze. From 1400 to 1814, there are records of more than 2 dozen winters during which the Thames were recorded to have frozen solid at London. The Thames had frozen over several times in the 16C. Reportedly King Henry VIII traveled from central London to Greenwich by sleigh along the river in 1536; and Queen Elizabeth I took to the ice frequently during 1564, to "shoot at marks," while small boys played football on the ice.
1683-4 Frost Fair on the River Thames in London, 1683, during the 'Little Ice Age'
Frost Fairs were staged on the frozen Thames in 1608, 1677, 1683-4, 1716, 1739-40, 1789, and 1814. From 1400 to the early 19C, over 24 winters in which the Thames was recorded to have frozen over at London, included: 1408, 1435, 1506, 1514, 1537, 1565, 1595, 1608, 1621, 1635, 1649, 1655, 1663, 1666, 1677, 1684, 1695, 1709, 1716, 1740, 1776, 1788, 1795, & 1814.
1683-4 Frost Fair Wonders on the Deep; Or, The most Exact Description of the Frozen River of Thames. Skittles is being played on the left-hand side.
During many of these, "Some played at the foot-ball as boldly there as if it had been on the dry land; diverse of the court shot daily at pricks set up on the Thames; & the people, both men & women, went on the Thames in greater numbers than in any street of the city of London."
1683-4 Frost Fair (1685) as painted by an unknown artist.
Long before 1400, the Thames was freezing into solid ice. One of the earliest accounts of the Thames freezing over comes from A.D. 250 when it was said to have frozen hard for nine weeks. In A.D. 923 the river iced over & wheeled traffic transported goods along its length for thirteen weeks.
1683-4 (after) Thomas Wyke, Frost Fair on the River Thames near the Temple
In the reign of Stephen, in the year 1150, "after a very wet summer there was in December so great a frost that horses and carriages crossed it upon the ice as safely as upon the dry ground, and that the frost lasted till the following month of March."
1683-4 (after) Thomas Wyke, Frost Fair on the River Thames near the Temple. Detail
Again in 1281, the Thames was frozen over, and that on the breaking up of the ice 5 of the arches of old London Bridge were carried away.
1683-4 Frost Fair Game of Nine Pins in Lower Left Quadrant
"In 1434, the Thames was so strongly frozen over, that merchandise and provisions brought into the mouth of the river were obliged to be unladen, and brought by land to the city."
1683-4 Souvenir (from a print shop set up on the ice) of Erra Paters' Prophesy of Frost Faire 1683-4 (circa 1760) Pater was the pseudonym of the astrologer prognosticator William Lilly (1602–1681), who had foretold of this frost. - Houghton Library, Harvard University
In 1515, too, carriages passed over on the ice from Lambeth to Westminster. At this time it is said the frost and snow were so severe that 5 arches of London Bridge were "borne downe and carried away with the streame."
1683-4 Frost Fair on the Thames at Temple Stairs Abraham Hondius shows booths, coaches, sledges, sedan-chairs and a game of nine-pins in front of the tents on the right-hand side.
On the 21st of December, 1564, during the prevalence of a hard frost, diversions on ice at the Thames, some play football, and others "shoot at marks." The courtiers from the palace at Whitehall mixed with the citizens, and tradition reports that Queen Elizabeth herself walked upon the ice.
1715 Frost Fair from near Temple Stairs, with Old London Bridge in the background. Nine Pin Playing at letter A
In 1620 a great frost enabled the Londoners to carry on all manner of sports and trades upon the river.
1715 Frost Fair Mrs. Aliff Tuffton (1716) Souvenir (from a print shop set up on the ice) - Houghton Library, Harvard University
The 1835 Saturday Magazine reported, that during the reign of William Rufus (c 1056-1100), was recorded a frost "whereby," in the words of an old chronicler, "the great streams [of England] were congealed in such a manner that they could draw two hundred horsemen & carriages over them; whilst at their thawing, many bridges, both of wood & stone, were borne down, & divers water-mills were broken up, & carried away."
1739-40 Frost Fair London Bridge Nine Pins in the Lower Left Hand Corner
The Thames reportedly froze again in 1114, for 4 weeks
1739-40 Frost Fair You that walk here, and do design to tell (1740) Souvenir (from a print shop set up on the ice) - Houghton Library, Harvard University
The History & Survey of London &; Its Environs from the Earliest Period by B Lambert, 1806, reports "We are told that in the year 1150 the summer proved so extremely wet, that a dearth almost equal to famine ensued ; & the winter of this year was remarkable for a severe frost, which commenced on the ninth of December, & continued till the beginning of March, during a great part of which time, the Thames was frozen so hard as to admit of carts & other carriages passing over the ice."
1739-40 Frost Fair - Great frost 1739 Jan Griffier
G H Birch reported in his 1903 From London on Thames, that "in 1282 there was a most terrible frost, the like of which had never been known. The pressure of ice heaped up against [London] Bridge, & unable to pass through from the narrowness of the arches of the bridge, carried away five arches of it, & rendered it, of course, impassable for the time until they were rebuilt." One eyewitness wrote that "From this Christmas till the Purification of Our Lady, there was such a frost & snow, as no man living could remember the like; wherethrough, five arches of London Bridge, & all Rochester Bridge, were borne downe & carried away by the streame; & the like happened to many bridges in England. And, not long after, men passed over the Thames, between Westminster & Lambeth, dry-shod."
1740 Frost Fair Souvenir (from a print shop set up on the ice) Mehetabel Lovell (1740) Houghton Library, Harvard University
A possible "frost fair" occurred in the winter of 1309-10. Several London Bridge arches were damaged by ice during a severe winter. The Thames was frozen. That a likely frost-fair was held on the Thames in London can be inferred by the statements in some chronicles that "sport" was held on the river plus a few reports of people walking across the Thames. According to contemporary reports "dancing took place around a fire built on the ice & a hare was coursed (chased) on the frozen waterway."
1739-40 Frost Fair. Showing skaters, a number of coffee houses, and a printing booth producing souvenirs were erected on the ice.
In the winter of 1338-39, hard frost started in December & lasted for 12 weeks in London & to the South. Also, from the Annals of Dublin, "So great a frost was this year (AD 1338) from the 2d of December to the 10th of February, that the river Liffey was frozen over so hard as to bear dancing, running, playing foot-ball, & making fires to broil herrings on. The depth of the snow that fell during this frost, is almost incredible; yet it is agreed, that such a season was never before known in Ireland."
1789 Frost Fair London by G H Birch
The severe winter of 1407-08 affected most of Europe & is regarded by climatologists as one of the most difficult on record. The frost lasted for 15 weeks & people were able to walk across the frozen Thames. According to Ian Currie (a noted authority on historical weather events), "one of the most snowy & was of outstanding duration." In Europe, ice in the Baltic had allowed traffic between the Scandinavian nations, & wolves had passed over the ice from Norway to Denmark.
1814 Frost Fair held on the Thames. Gentlemen playing Nine Pins in the center front.
In 1410, once again the river froze solid for fourteen weeks & was turned into a roadway to ease congestion in the city. The 1410 Chronicle of the Grey Friars of London recorded that "Thys yere was the grete frost & ise & the most sharpest wenter that ever man sawe, & it duryd fourteen wekes, so that men might in dyvers places both goo & ryde over the Temse."
1814 Frost Fair George Thompson, “A view of the river Thames” Two games of Nine Pins are depicted on the mid left-hand segment of the image.
The winter of 1434-35 was perhaps one of the most harsh in the last millennium. In this winter, the Thames was frozen from below London Bridge to Gravesend. Sea-borne goods were landed at the mouth of the river & taken over the ice into London. A frost from the latter part of November continued to at least St. Valentine's Day (14th February). There are reports of "intense frost" in Scotland in the winter of 1434-5 & a note that the Thames was frozen sufficient to bear wagons in the same year. The 1806 History & Survey of London & Its Environs from the Earliest Period by B Lambert, noted that "In the year 1434 a great frost began on the 24th of November, & held till the 10th of February, following ; whereby the river Thames was so strongly frozen, that all sorts of merchandizes & provisions brought into the mouth of the said river were unladen, & brought by land to the city."
1814 Frost Fair last Thames Frost Fair
In 1506, a frost froze the Thames throughout January; observers reported that horses & carts could cross the frozen river.
1814 Frost Fair London Bridge by Luke Clenell 1781-1840
The Thames froze again in January 1514-15, & carts crossed from Lambeth to Westminster. The Chronicles of the Grey Friars of London noted "Such a sore snowe & a frost that men myght goo with carttes over the Temse & horses, & it lastyd tylle Candelmas. "The History & Survey of London & Its Environs from the Earliest Period by B Lambert, 1806 states that "Fabian says, that, in 1515, the Thames was frozen so hard that carriages of all sorts passed between Westminster & Lambeth upon the ice." Reportedly in January of 1517, the Thames froze again.
1814 Frost Fair View of the Thames off Three Cranes Wharf when frozen Monday 31st January to Saturday 5th February 1814
In 1536-37, A frost caused the Thames to freeze in London: King Henry VIII, with his queen (Jane Seymour...who was to die late in the year 1537, after giving birth to the future Edward VI) rode on the ice-bound river from London (probably Whitehall) to Greenwich. Another severe, prolonged frost set in 7th December 1564. The court of Elizabeth I indulged in sports on the ice at Westminster. Football & nine pins were played on the ice. In 1564-65, Holinshed noted that "the 21st of December, began a frost, which continued so extremely that on new year's eve people went over & along the Thames on the ice from London Bridge to Westminster. On the 31st day of January, at night, it began to thaw, & on the fifth day was no ice to be seen between London Bridge & Lambeth, which sudden thaw caused great floods & high waters, that bare down bridges & houses, & drowned many people in England."
In the winter of 1629-21, a Frost Fair was held on the Frozen Thames. In 1634-35, a severe winter froze the Thames. In parts of England, a frost lasted from the 15th December 1634 until 11th February 1635, with frequent snowfall. The winter of 1648-49 saw another frost which froze the Thames. Between winter 1662-63 to winter 1666-67, three of the five winters in this period were cold, with severe frosts. It is claimed that skating was introduced into England during the winter of 1662/63 and that the King (Charles II) watched this new sport on the frozen Thames.
1814 Frost Fair with Nine Pins on the ice
The Frost Fair of 1683-84, was well recorded in both words & images. In a curious volume of London ballads and broadsides in the British Museum is one entitled "Great Britain's Wonder, or London's Admiration," being "a true representation of a prodigious frost which began about the beginning of December, 1683, and continued till the 4th day of February following. It held on the Thames with such violence that men and beasts, coaches and carts, went as frequently thereon as boats were wont to pass before. There was also "a street of booths built from the Temple to Southwark, where were sold all sorts of goods imaginable, namely, cloaths, plate, earthenware, meat, drink, brandy, tobacco, and a hundred sorts of commodities not here inserted: it being the wonder of this present age and a great consternation to all the spectators."...The street of booths holds out all sorts of signs, just like the houses in the Strand. There are men and boys making slides, skating, and sledging in all directions; some of the sledges are of the ordinary type, like the low brewer's dray drawn by heavy horses; some are more artistic, made up like gondolas; some are apparently genuine boats, with sails; in 2 places are carriages drawn by a single horse, and just opposite the Temple Stairs a bull is being baited. Gallants in the fashionable dresses of the day are promenading, with wigs and swords...In a corner are five men playing at skittles; one of them is smoking a pipe."
1814 Frost Fair with Nine Pins
On the 1st of January, 1684, John Evelyn wrote in his diary that whole streets of booths were set out on the Thames, and that he crossed the river on the ice on foot upon the 9th in order to dine with the Archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, and again, in his coach, from Lambeth to the Horseferry at Millbank, upon the 5th of February. On the 6th he observes that the ice had "now become so thick as to beare not onely streetes of boothes in which they roasted meate, and had divers shops of wares quite acrosse as in a towne, but coaches, carts, and horses passed over...By the 16th the number of persons keeping shops on the ice had so greatly increased that Evelyn says, "the Thames was filled with people and tents selling all sorts of wares as in the City;" and by the 24th the varieties and festivities of a fair appear to have been completely established. "The frost," he states, "continuing more and more severe, the Thames before London was still planted with boothes in formal streets, all sorts of trades, and shops furnish'd and full of commodities, even to a printing presse. As part of the festivities, printers set up shop on the ice to sell engraved & letterpressed sheets of paper as keepsakes. Evelyn also notes that "coaches plied from Westminster to the Temple, and from several other staires, to and fro, as in the streetes: sleds [sledges], sliding with skeetes [skates], a bullbaiting, horse and coach races, puppet-plays and interludes, cookes, tippling, and other lewd places; so that it seem'd to be a bacchanalian triumph, or carnival on the water." The Duke of York (James II.) writes to his son-in-law—and supplanter-William of Orange, on January 4, 1683–4: "The weather is so very sharp and the frost so great that the river here is quite frozen over, so that for these three days past people have gone over it in several places, and many booths are built on it between Lambeth and Westminster, where they roast meat and sell drink." The pastimes of throwing at a cock, sliding & skating, roasting an ox, foot-ball, skittles, pigeon-holes, cups & balls, &c., are represented in 1683-4 prints being carried on in various parts of the frozen river.
Post Script: The freezing of the Thames is thought to have been aided or even caused by the structure of Old London Bridge (1176-1825) after 1176. The bridge was built with 19 arches & each of the 20 piers was supported by large breakwaters called "starlings." The old London Bridge acted as a weir & more or less prevented tides & salt water from passing that point. When chunks of ice got caught between them, it slowed the flow of the river above the bridge, making it more likely to freeze over. When the New London Bridge opened in 1831, it only had 5 arches. Once this structure was in place, the Thames never froze over in the London area again - despite temperatures dropping to -20C at times in a notoriously cold winter of 1895.