Monday, October 31, 2016

Sports & Games - Archery & Women - Hunting in Game Preserves & Fighting Enemies

Diana and maidens hunting - The Book of the Queen by Christine de Pizan from France 1410

Archery - Female Hunters and Warriors

Medieval European sources mention a surprising number of womem warriors and depict female hunting archers during the 10C-14C, more than sources from earlier or later eras do. The weapons used for hunting would mostly be the same as those used for war: bow, crossbow, lance or spear, knife and sword. Bows were the most commonly used weapon. Although the crossbow was introduced around the time of the First Crusade (1100), it was not generally used for hunting until the 2nd half of the 15th century. 


 Hunting The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York Woman using Crossbow

During Medieval times, local lords strove to maintain and monopolize the reserves and the taking of big game in forest reserves, and small game in warrens. They were most successful in England after the Norman Conquest, and in Gascony from the 12th century. These were large sanctuaries of woodland — the royal forest—where populations of game animals were kept and watched over by gamekeepers. The peasantry could not hunt in these gameparks, poaching being subject to severe punishment: the injustice of such "emparked" preserves was a common cause of complaint in vernacular literature. The lower classes mostly had to content themselves with snaring birds and smaller game outside of forest reserves and gameparks.


Hunting Women in the middle is shooting with a bow and arrow, the lady on the left is using a rod to drive game toward the huntress.

By the 16th century, areas of land reserved for breeding and hunting of game were of three kinds, according to their degree of enclosure and being subject to Forest Laws: Forests, large unenclosed areas of wilderness; Chases, which normally belonged to nobles, rather than the crown; and Game Parks, which were enclosed, and not subject to Forest Laws.


Hunting Taymouth Hours, British Library, 1325-40.

Art and literature from the period tell of female warriors. The margins of manuscripts were decorated with images of armed women, sometimes jousting. A group of narratives from 13C France called Li Tournoiement as dames (“The Ladies’ Tournament”) describes an imagined tournament among highly skilled female combatants. In the 13C, two Italian scholars named Ptolemy of Luca and Giles of Rome both considered the question, and in accordance with the scholastic method they both considered the case for and against warrior women. It was believed women’s physical and psychological health would improve if they practiced the military arts, and there were literary precedents such as the Amazons of Greek myth.


Hunting Diana and her maidens hunt a stag, The Epistle of Othea (KB 74 G 27, fol. 59r), 1450-1475

Ethelfleda, daughter of Alfred the Great, in the early 10C commanded troops against Scandinavian forces that had conquered part of England. Matilda of Tuscany defended the papacy nearly 200 years later. Matilda, the daughter and legitimate heir of Henry I of England, led troops against the usurping King Stephen during the 12C. Dame Nicola de la Haye was Sheriff of Lincoln, and led during the siege of that city in 1217. Countess Blanche of Champagne fought a long campaign to defend her son’s interests around the same time. The widow of Arnoul II of Guînes fought against her son to defend her widow’s portion. The women noted belong to royal or noble families, since medieval writers rarely concerned themselves with common people. There are a few examples, however, of what seem to be female, non-noble soldiers. Countess Richilde of Hainaut’s brother-in-law captured her in the battle of Cassel in 1071. 
 Hunting Yates Thompson 13 f. 79; The Hague, MMW, 10 B 23. Petrus Comestor, Bible historial (translation from the Latin by Guyars des Moulins)

The Crusades brought a few women into battle. The church presented the war in the East as a kind of pilgrimage, traditionally open to women. When the First Crusade began in the late 11C, women could come along to the Holy Land, if they had a male's permission and a male escort. They weren’t supposed to do any fighting, but the possibility was there. About a hundred years later, when Pope Innocent III wanted to optimize the chances of victory in the East, he increased this possibility — if wealthy women wanted to equip knights, they could. They didn’t have to lead the knights to Jerusalem, of course, but in his letter Quod super his from the year 1200, the Pope gave women that option. Imad ad-Din’s report also tells of a female archer in a green mantle who wounded many of his Muslims at Acre. Archaeological excavations at Caesarea, once an important crusader city, have uncovered a female skeleton in armor. When Charles VI of France marched into Flanders in 1382, the Flemings had a woman carrying their banner. She died in the following battle.
Hunting near Hartenfels Castle, Lucas Cranach the Elder - detail

Few written sources exist on the Vikings and their world, but excavations have revealed women buried with weapons. Also, a few sources claim there were female Viking warriors. Danish chronicler Saxo Grammaticus names one called Lathgertha and one called Rusila, who may or may not be identical to the Inghen the Red whom Irish sources identify as a female Viking leader.
 Hunting Yates Thompson 13 f. 79; Taymouth Hours, England 1325 -40;  also The Hague, MMW, 10 B 23. Petrus Comestor, Bible historial (translation from the Latin by Guyars des Moulins)

Female Warriors with and without bows


 Giovanni Boccaccio, Zenobia hunting, De mulieribus claris (BNF Fr. 598, fol. 148), beginning of the 15C

5C
451: Saint Genevieve is credited with averting Attila from Paris by rallying the people in prayer.
Hunting Arthur and Guinevere hunt a boar, Lancelot du Lac (BNF Fr. 122, fol. 65v), 1344

6C
6C: A Saxon woman is buried with a knife and a shield in Lincolnshire, England.
6C: Lady Xian personally leads her army in China.
589: The royal nun Basina, daughter of Chilperic I, and Clotilda rebel and take power in the city of Poitiers by the use of an army of criminals.
De Mulieribus Claris Manuscript miniatures bnf français 598 de mulieribus claris

7C
7C: Life of Mo Chua of Balla. The account of his life describe him as converting two violent "Amazons" named Bee and Lithben.
617-18: Princess Pingyang of China helps overthrow the Sui Dynasty by organizing an "Army of the Lady".
624: Battle of Badr. Qurayshi Arab priestess Hind al-Hunnud leads her people against Muhammad in the fight. Her father, uncle, and brother are killed. Rufaida Al-Aslamia, the first Muslim nurse, attends to the wounded.
625: Hind al-Hunnud is among fifteen women accompanying troops in a battle near Medina, singing songs to inspire warriors. She exults over the body of the man who killed her father, chews his liver, and makes jewelry from his skin and nails.
625: Nusaybah bint Ka'ab fights in the Battle of Uhud on behalf of Muhammad after converting to Islam. Hammanah bint Jahsh also participated in the Battle of Uhud and provided water to the needy, and treated the wounded and injured. Rumaysa bint Milhan entered the battle carrying a dagger in the folds of her dress, and tended to the wounded. She also made attempts to defend Muhammad when the tide of the battle turned against him.
627: Rumaysa bint Milhan participates in the Battle of the Trench carrying a dagger in her robes. When Muhammad asked her what she was doing with it, she informed him that she planned to use it to fight deserters.
630s Ghazala al-Haruriyya lead troops in battle.
630s: Khawlah bint al-Azwar participate actively in combat during the Battle of Adnajin dressed as a man.along with several other women, takes command of the Rashidun army at the Battle of Yarmouk against the Roman Byzantine Empire. She was nearly beaten by a Byzantine Greek when one of her female companions, Wafayra, beheaded her opponent with one blow. This act rallied the Arabs and they defeated the Greeks.
632: Prophetess Sajah, a contemporary of Muhammad, led an army of 4,000 against Medina after his death, but called off the attack when she learned of the defeat of Tulayha.
634: Umm Hakim single-handedly disposed of seven Byzantine soldiers with a tent pole during the Battle of Marj al-Saffar.
653: Chen Shuozhen leads a peasant rebellion in China, declaring herself empress regnant of China.
656: Aisha, widow of Muhammad, leads troops at the Battle of the Camel. She is defeated.
690s: Dihya or Kahina, leads Berber resistance against the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb.
 BL Royal 16 G V f.117v - Zenobia hunting, and with her army, and a warrior kneeling before her. [De claris mulieribus in an anonymous French translation (Le livre de femmes nobles et renomées) - G. Boccaccio - 1440]

8C
8C to 11C (Viking Age): Sagas and historical records tell of Viking shieldmaidens like Lagertha participating in battles and raids, such as Veborg in the Battle of Brávellir in 750.
722: Queen Æthelburg of Wessex destroys the town of Taunton.
730: A Khazar noblewoman named Parsbit commands an army against Armenia.
769: Gülnar Hatun, a traditional Turkish heroine, is killed fighting the Abbasids.
Boccaccio's Famous Women, 15th Century. Penthesilea, Amazon Queen, shown in armour. Furious Penthesilea leads a battleline of Amazons with crescent shields.

9C
811: After suffering great losses, Khan Krum mobilizes the women of the Bulgars, who then take part in the Battle of Pliska.
880: Ermengard of Italy conducts the defense of Vienne until forced to surrender in September 882.
Hunting Taymouth Hours, British Library, 1325-40;  Yates Thompson 13 f. 79;  and The Hague, MMW, 10 B 23. Petrus Comestor, Bible historial (translation from the Latin by Guyars des Moulins)

10C
10C: According to tradition, Saint Theodora of Vasta, in Arcadia of Peloponnesus, joined the army of Byzantine Empire in her father's stead dressed as a man, to spare her father from conscription, and had no brother who could take his place: when refusing to marry a woman who claimed to have been made pregnant by her, she is executed, resulting in the discovery of the biological gender of her corpse, and her status as a saint for the sacrifice she made for her father.
912–22: Reign of Æthelflæd, queen of Mercia. She commanded armies, fortified towns, and defeated the Danes. She also defeated the Welsh and forced them to pay tribute to her.
971: Sviatoslav I of Kiev attacked the Byzantine Empire in Bulgaria in 971. When the Varangians were defeated in the siege of Dorostolon, the victors were stunned to discover shieldmaidens among the fallen warriors.
975: Adelaide-Blanche of Anjou, acting for her sons Guy and Bertrand, led an army to aid Guy (a.k.a. Guido II), Count-Bishop of le Puy, in establishing the "Peace of God" in le Puy.
975: Elvira Ramírez and her nephew leads the Leonese army in the Siege of Moorish Gormaz.
986: The Khitan Dowager Regent Empress Xiao Yanyan of the Khitan Liao state, regnal title Chengtian, assumes power at age 30 in 982. In 986, personally led her own army against the Song dynasty and defeated them in battle, fighting the retreating Chinese army. She then ordered the castration of around 100 ethnic Han Chinese boys she had captured in China, supplementing the Khitan's supply of eunuchs to serve at her court, among them was the eunuch Wang Ji'en. The boys were all under ten years old and were selected for their good looks. The History of Liao described and praised Empress Chengtian's capture and mass castration of Chinese boys in a biography on the Chinese eunuch Wang Ji'en.
Late 10C: Gudit rebels against the Kingdom of Aksum in Ethiopia.
Illustration from a manuscript of Des Cleres et Nobles Femmes (Boccaccio) made in central France in the first quarter of the 15th century (British Library Royal 20 C V)

11C
Early 11C: Freydís Eiríksdóttir, a Viking woman, sails to Vinland with Þorfinnr "Karlsefni" Þórðarson. When she faced hostile natives while pregnant, she exposed her breasts and beat her chest with a sword. This caused the natives to run away.
1016: Adela of Hamaland defend the fortress Uplade in the Netherlands in the absence of her spouse, and fills out the ranks of her defense force with women dressed as soldiers.
1047: Akkadevi, an Indian princess, besieges the fort of Gokage.
1050: Norwegian noblewoman Bergljot Håkonsdatter raise an army to kill the king for murdering her spouse and son: she takes the king's estate, but by then the king had manage to escape her.
1058–86: Sikelgaita of Salerno, second wife of Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia, accompanies her husband on military campaigns, and regularly puts on full armor and rides into battle at his side.
1071: Richilde, Countess of Hainaut is captured fighting in the Battle of Cassel.
1072: Urraca of Zamora, Infanta of the Kingdom of Castile, defends the city of Zamora against her brother, Sancho.
1075: Emma de Guader, Countess of Norfolk defends Norwich castle while it is under siege.
1087: Matilda of Tuscany personally leads a military expedition to Rome in an attempt to install Pope Victor, but the strength of the imperial counterattack soon convinced the pope to retire from the city.
1090: Norman woman Isabel of Conches rides armed as a knight.
1097: Florine of Burgundy participates in the first crusade with her spouse, and fell participating in actual combat by his side while their army was attacked and destroyed in Anatolia.
Mithridates VI and Hypiscratea (fol. 91v), from Le livre de femmes nobles et renomées (British Library 16 G V), produced in Rouen c. 1440

12C
1101: Ida of Formbach-Ratelnberg leads her own army in the Crusade of 1101.
1116: Theresa, Countess of Portugal successfully defends Coimbra against the Moors and is given the title Queen in recognition by the pope.
1121: Urraca of León fights her half-sister, Theresa, Countess of Portugal when she refuses to surrender the city of Tui, Pontevedra.
1130: Female Chinese general Liang Hongyu, wife of general Han Shizhong of the Song Dynasty, blocks the advance of the Jin army with her husband. Her drumming invigorated the Song army and rallied them to defeat the Jin.
1136: Welsh princess Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd leads an army against the Normans. She is defeated and killed.
1141: Matilda of Boulogne raises an army to continue the fight for the crown of England, after her husband, King Stephen is captured by the Empress Matilda.
1145: Eleanor of Aquitaine accompanies her husband on the Second Crusade.
1148: Melisende, Queen of Jerusalem actively participates in military strategy planning as the head of her troops in the Council in Acre during the Second Crusade.
1150: The Swedish nobleman Jon Jarl are killed by Baltic pirates who attacks his estate Askenös after his return from the First Swedish Crusade, after which his widow, the Lady of Askanäs (her name is not preserved), flee to Hundhammar, gather an army and return to kill the murderers of her spouse.
1170-76: Aoife MacMurrough conducts battles in Ireland on behalf of her consort Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke and is sometimes known as "Red Eva". 
1172: Alrude Countess of Bertinoro ends a siege of Ancona by leading an army into battle and crushing imperial troops.
1179: Elizabeth of Hungary, Duchess of Bohemia successfully defends Prague toward her brother-in-law Sobeslav II as regent during the absence of her spouse. She appeared herself on the battle field with clerical signs on her banner.
1180–85: Female Japanese warrior Tomoe Gozen fights in the Genpei War alongside men.
1182-99: Hōjō Masako rides with her spouse Minamoto no Yoritomo on his campaigns and was never defeated in battle.
1184: Elizabeth of Hungary, Duchess of Bohemia, for the second time, successfully defends Prague toward her brother-in-law Sobeslav II as regent during the absence of her spouse.
September 1187: Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem, personally leads the defense of the city of Jerusalem during the siege of Saladin.
1189: Elizabeth of Hungary, Duchess of Bohemia defends Prague toward Conrad II of Bohemia but is forced to surrender and turn over the city.
1191-1217: Nicola de la Haye defended loyalist interests against rebel barons in Lincoln, England.
1198: Maud de Braose defends Plainscastle against Welsh attack.
1199: Countess Joan of Toulouse sieges Les Cassés.
Late 12C: Umadevi, consort of King Veera Ballala II, commanded Mysore armies against the rival Chalukyas on at least two occasions, allowing Bellala to concentrate on administrative matters and thus significantly contributing to the Hoysalas’ conquest of the Chalkyua at Kalyani (near present-day Bidar).
MAthildedeTosdcane

13C
1201: Japanese woman Hangaku Gozen defends a fort as an archer until she is killed by an arrow.
1221: A daughter of Genghis Khan, Khagan of the Mongol Empire, massacred the residents of Nishapur to avenge the death of her husband who was killed in action.
1230: The regent of France, Blanche of Castile, organized and personally lead the French army to subdue a rebel in Brittany.
1236-39: Reign of Razia Sultana, She led her troops in battle.
1236-94: Female warriors attended the campaigns of the Mongols.
1258: Doquz Khatun accompanies her husband Hulagu on campaigns. At the Sack of Baghdad in 1258, the Mongols massacred tens of thousands of inhabitants, but by the order of Doquz, the Christians were spared.
1261–89: Reign of Indian queen Rudrama Devi. She leads her troops in battle, and may have been killed in battle in 1289.
1264: Eleanor of Provence raises troops in France for her husband during the Baron's War.
1270: Eleanor of Castile accompanies her husband on his crusade. According to tradition, she saved his life by sucking poison from his wound when he was injured.
1271: Isabella of Aragon, Queen of France dies at Cosenza on the way back from the Crusades.
1290: Royal Armouries Ms. I.33 is written. It depicts fighters. An illustration of a woman named Walpurgis training in sword and buckler techniques is in the manuscript among others.
1296: Bertha van Heukelom defends Castle IJsselstein against Hubrecht van Vianen of Culemborg 
1297: Joan I of Navarre, Countess of Champagne, leads an army against the Count of Bar when he invaded her domain Champagne.
Late 13C: Khutulun, a relative of Kublai Khan, is described as a superb warrior and accompanies her father Khaidu on military campaigns.
Venus Draws Her Bow to aim at a potential Lover,4- Le Roman de la Rose - 1490 [MS. Douce 195, f. 148v]

14C
14C: Urduja, a Filipino princess, according to tradition, takes part in several battles.
1326: Isabella of France invades England with Roger de Mortimer, and overthrows Edward II of England, replacing him with her son Edward III of England, with her and de Mortimer acting as regents.
1331: Queen Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi leads her army to crush a rebellion in the areas of Sadeng and Keta.
1335: During the Second War of Scottish Independence Christina Bruce commanded the garrison of Kildrummy Castle and successfully held the castle against pro-Baliol forces led by David III Strathbogie.
1335: The Scots defeat a company led by the Count of Namur. Amongst the Count's casualties was a female lancer who had killed her opponent, Richard Shaw, at the same moment that he had killed her. Her gender was only discovered when the bodies were being stripped of their armor at the end of the engagement. "The chronicler Bower seems to have been at least as impressed by the rarity of two mounted soldiers simultaneously transfixing one another with their lances as with the fact that one of them was a woman."
1338: Agnes Randolph successfully defends her castle against a siege by England's earl of Salisbury.
1341: Anna of Trebizond marches to take the throne of Trebizond at the head of an army.
1342-43: Joanna of Flanders conquers the city of Redon and defends the city of Hennebont during the Breton war.
1354: Ibn Battuta reports seeing female warriors in Southeast Asia.[98]
1351–63: Han E serves as a soldier in the Chinese army as a man under the name Han Guanbao, and is promoted to lieutenant.
1351–57: Cia Ordelaffi née Marzia degli Ubaldini an Italian noblewoman from Forlì came in help of Lodovico Ordelaffi during the battle of Dovadola (part of the Guelphs and Ghibellines war). In 1357 she took part in the defense of Cesena during the Forlivesi crusade induced by Pope Innocent VI.
1358: Richardis of Schwerin defends Sönderborg Castle on Als against Valdemar IV of Denmark.
1364–1405: Timur uses female archers to defend baggage trains.[98]
1387: Queen Jadwiga of Poland leads two military campaigns.[102]
1389: Frisian regent Foelke Kampana leads armies to assist her spouse Ocko Kenisna tom Brok, chief of Auricherland: after finding him dead on the battlefield, she returns to Aurich, and upon finding it taken by an enemy during her absence, she retakes it by military force.
1392: Maria, Queen of Sicily, conquers Sicily and defeats the rebelling barons as the leader of an army alongside her consort.
Witch shooting a man in the foot with an enchanted arrow made from a hazel wand to induce lumbago. Woodcut to Con Hexen und boesen Weibern and From Ulrich Molitor De Laniis et phitonicis mulieribus, Constance, 1489. Woodcut.

15C
15C: Maire o Ciaragain leads Irish clans in rebellion.
1419: Margaret of Bavaria defend French Burgundy against John IV, Count of Armagnac.
1420: Joan of France, Duchess of Brittany, launches war against the Penthievre clan in Brittany and their strongholds one by one until she conquers the last, to free her consort, the duke, who was taken prisoner by the Penthievre.
1428: Cecília Rozgonyi commanded her own ship in battle toward the Ottoman Empire under Sigismund of Hungary at Golubac fortress.
1428: Philippa of England, Queen of Denmark, successfully organized the defence of Copenhagen against the Hanseatic League, a heroic feat later recounted by Hans Christian Andersen in Godfather's Picture Book (1868).
1429: Joan of Arc asserts that God has sent her to drive the English out of France, and is given a position in the French Royal army. She is supported by Yolande of Aragon, mother of Queen Marie d'Anjou (wife of King Charles VII).
1430s: Jeanne des Armoises was a soldier in Italy.
1431: Joan of Arc, perhaps the most famous of medieval warrior women, was burned as a witch
1432: Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine, leads an army to rescue her husband from the Duke of Burgundy.
1433: Ida Königsmarck traditionally honored defense her fief Kastelholm Castle on Åland in Swedish Finland during the Engelbrekt rebellion.
1450s: Zaydi Yemeni chieftain Sharifa Fatima conquers San‘a.’
1451–52 : Brita Tott serves as a spy in the war between Sweden and Denmark
1455: Elise Eskilsdotter leads a war against the German merchant class of Bergen in Norway as revenge for the murder of her spouse, by means of her pirate fleet.
1461: Queen Margaret of Anjou defeats the Earl of Warwick in the Wars of the Roses.
1461: Alice Knyvet defends Buckingham Castle at Norfolk against Sir Gilbert of Debenhem.
1467: Ólöf Loftsdóttir personally leads the war against the English on Iceland.
1470: Joanna of Rožmitál leads the Czech army in war.
1471: Queen Margaret of Anjou is defeated in Battle of Tewkesbury. She and her son escaped to Flanders. The Yorkists eventually captured her and ransomed her to Louis XI, after she had sworn an oath not to go to war anymore.
1472: Onorata Rodiana from Cremona, Italy is mortally wounded in battle. She had disguised herself as a man to become a soldier.
1472: Jeanne Hachette rips down the flag of the invading Burgundians at Beauvais, inspiring the garrison to win the fight.
1480s: Mandukhai Khatun takes command of the Mongol army and defeats the Oirats.
1481: Dutch noblewoman Swob Sjaarda defends her castle during a siege in the Netherlands.
1482-92: Queen Isabella I of Castile actively participates in the warfare and conquer of Granada.
1487: Katarina Nipertz defends Raseborg Castle in Finland, the fief of her late spouse, against the troops of the new vassal appointed by the regent, for several weeks.
1494: Ats Bonninga defends her fort in Friesland.
1496: Bauck Poppema defends her fort in Friesland.
1499: Caterina Sforza successfully defends Forli against a Venetian attack and become famous and nicknamed "The Tiger."

Bibliography - Period Literature

De arte venandi cum avibus, Frederick II

Les livres du roi Modus et de la reine Ratio (1354–1376), attributed to Henri de Ferrières[1]

Le Roman des Deduis (before 1377), Gace de la Buigne.

Livre de Chasse (1387–1389), Gaston III (Phėbus) Phoebus, Count of Foix. Various copies with excellent illustrations. Also known as Book of The Hunt.

The Master of Game, Edward, Duke of York (partial English translation of Phoebus & Twiti)

La chasse royale, Charles IX of France

Libro de la montería, Alfonso XI of Castile
Hunting Yates Thompson 13 f. 79;  The Hague, MMW, 10 B 23. Petrus Comestor, Bible historial (translation from the Latin by Guyars des Moulins)

Bibliography - Historical Reseaech

Blythe, James M., “Women in the Military: Scholastic Arguments and Medieval Images of Female Warriors,” History of Political Thought 22 (2001), 242-269.

Clover, Carol J., “Maiden Warriors and Other Sons,” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 85 (1986), 35-49.

Contamine, Philippe, La Guerre au moyen âge, English trans., War in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1998).

Edgington, Susan B. and Sarah Lambert (eds.), Gendering the Crusades (Cardiff, 2001).

Holum, Kenneth G. and Robert L. Hohlfelder (eds.), King Herod’s Dream: Caesarea on the Sea (New York, 1988).

McLaughlin, Megan, “The Woman Warrior: Gender, Warfare and Society in Medieval Europe,” Women’s Studies 17 (1990), 193-209.

Nicholson, Helen, “Women on the Third Crusade,” Journal of Medieval History 23 (1997), 335-349.

Solterer, Helen, “Figures of Female Militancy in Medieval France,” Signs 16 (1991), 522-549.

Verdier, Philippe, “Woman in the Marginalia of Gothic Manuscripts,” in Rosemarie T. Morewedge (ed.), The Role of Woman in the Middle Ages (London, 1975), 121-160.

Young, Antonia, Women Who Become Men: Albanian Sworn Virgins (Oxford, 2000).

See
Female Warriors during The Middle Ages by Stefan Ingstrand in Strange Horizons Issue 6 April 2009 

Medieval Hunting in Wikipedia

Women in Post Classical Warfare in Wikipedia

Sunday, October 30, 2016

Sports & Games - Archery - 17C Competition

Dedicated outdoor public areas in local towns & communities were the scene of amusements & recreation in the centuries before more dignified commercial public pleasure gardens & public park spaces blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. Public pleasure gardens & public grounds became places to meet neighbors & travelers passing through; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to promenade for recreation; to conduct business; to see & be seen. 
David Teniers the Younger (1610-1690) Archery in a Town's Public Space 

Saturday, October 29, 2016

6C & 17C Elites celebrate in a fairly fanciful Garden of the Villa Medici

Gardens were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation in the centuries before public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others.


Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) A Celebration of Love in the Garden of the Villa Medici

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Friday, October 28, 2016

17C Dancing Outside a Local Public Tavern or Inn Garden

Outdoor spaces were the scene of amusements & recreation at everyday taverns in the centuries before commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. 
David Teniers the Younger (1610-1690) Peasants Dancing outside at an Inn

Thursday, October 27, 2016

Sports & Games - A 18C card game for the alehouse or its garden

The 16C Alehouse card game of Put – a chance to bluff & cheat at cards!
by Mike Rendell from his fabulous blog The Georgian Gentleman Jan 22 2014

"Sometimes in Spanish bars you see a group of elderly gentlemen enthusiastically playing a game of cards called truc – it seems to involve a lot of triumphalism and theatrical posturing, and apparently is very similar to the English game called “Put”. In Catalonia they play it as a foursome but with partners (as in Bridge) and this gives rise to some intriguing signals between players on the same side. Apparently:
Closing one eye: means you hold a three.
Pouting your lips: means you hold a two.
Showing the tip of your tongue: means you have an Ace.

"Obviously it helps if you can give these signals to your playing partner without being observed by the other two players! It also means that if a Catalonian winks, blows you a kiss and then sticks his tongue out at you, it is best not to call the Police until you have checked what game he is playing….

"Truc seems to be a bit more complicated than the old English game of Put, but it is clear that they share a common ancestry – no doubt sailors brought it back from abroad. There are records of Put being played in England as far back as the 16th Century.
Thomas Rowlandson/George Woodward collaboration, published by Ackermann 

"I had not come across Put until I saw this Thomas Rowlandson/George Woodward collaboration, published by Ackermann in August 1799 and appearing on the Lewis Walpole Library site. It is called “A game at Put in a country alehouse”. The yokel on the left says “Zome-how – I donna half like the looks o-thee!” while holding a pair of fives and an ace. Across the table his companion looks shell-shocked at a hand containing a royal card and two aces (?) and announces “I put.”

"So, how was Put played and what is it all about? It was certainly a very popular game in taverns in the 18th Century, even though (or rather, because) it relied relatively little upon skill or memory, but rather a lot on “brass neck” and bluffing. No suits to worry about, no counting of cards already turned up: just you pitting your wits against your opponent (usually only two people played, but it could be three or four), armed with just three cards for each deal.

"The first thing to remember was that it wasn’t “aces high” – or even low. The sequence in the 52-card pack was (high) 3-2-A-K-Q-J-T-9-8-7-6-5-4 (low) – the same as in truc. Three cards were dealt to each player, and the non-dealer would lead off. His opponent would try and win the trick by playing a higher card. Remember: there were no trump cards and no suits to follow.

"The game was won by the first player to score 5 points over as many deals as necessary. Where both players played cards of equal value, that trick was tied and the player who led had to do so again. A player who won two tricks, or one trick when both the others were tied, won the hand, and scored one point. If the players each won a trick and the other trick was tied, the hand was deemed to be a draw and no points were scored – this was called “trick and tie”.

"What makes the game interesting, and gives it a quality similar to Brag, is that players try and ‘con’ their opponent by talking up their hand. Either player, when about to lead a card, may do one of three things:
1.  He can throw his hand in, thus conceding the deal and giving a point to the opponent.
2.  Lead a card without saying anything. His opponent must then play.
3.  Say “Put”, which is short for “I put it to you that you should throw your cards in while you have the chance.” If the opponent follows this advice, the deal ends and the putter scores 1 point. If not, it is a case of ‘put and see’ and the putter leads and the other must play.

"What this means is that a player with a weak hand may still win, by asserting the strength of his hand and hoping that his opponent will cave in. It led to much histrionics and double bluffing.
 Charles Cotton. The Compleat Gamester, (London, 1674).

"The game was mentioned in a book by Charles Cotton called The Compleat Gamester, (London, 1674).  Cotton was an intriguing person – a close friend of Isaac Walton and a contributor to his Compleat Angler, published in 1653. His Compleat Gamester was considered the “standard” English-language reference work on the playing of games – especially  games where betting was a popular feature, and including billiards, card games, dice, horse racing and cock fighting. His authorship of the book was not disclosed at the time it was first published, although it was acknowledged in some of the later editions. Poor Cotton died bankrupt in 1687 and is buried in St James Church Piccadilly.

"Various later editions of The Gamester appeared in the 18th Century. According to Cotton, Put was an extremely disreputable game. He called it “the ordinary rooking game of every place” and much of his chapter on Put is devoted to a description of various common types of cheating. This might be done by marking the cards, or introducing cards from another pack, etc. He also explained “The High Game”, in which the cards were stacked so as to deal the victim a three and two twos, while the dealer dealt himself a two and two threes. The non-dealer would fancy his chances and call ”Put” and perhaps agree some extra wager on the side, which the dealer would then “see” and win. Cotton remarked that you were unlikely to get away with this more than once against the same player!"

Wednesday, October 26, 2016

Sports & Games - Skittles & Cards at a Local 17C Tavern or Inn Garden

Outdoor spaces were the scene of amusements & recreation at everyday taverns in the centuries before commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. 


David Teniers the Younger (1610-1690) Playing Cards and Skittles outside the local tavern.

Tuesday, October 25, 2016

16C & 17C Elites Promenade, Court, & Listen to Music in a private Garden

Gardens were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation in the centuries before public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others.


Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) Promenading in a Garden

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Monday, October 24, 2016

17C Men, Women, & Children Celebrating at a Local Tavern or Inn Garden Terrace

This gathering is taking place on one of the little garden terraces, that tavern owners began to attach to their inns during this period for the use of the general populace.  Dutch artist Jan Steen (1626-1569) is best known for his upbeat genre paintings depicting scenes from everyday life. 

Jan Steen (Dutch artist, 1626-1679) Celebrating on a Garden Terrace

Outdoor spaces were the scene of amusements & recreation at everyday inns & taverns in the centuries before commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. Public pleasure gardens & grounds became places to meet neighbors & travelers passing through; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to promenade for recreation; to conduct business; to see & be seen.  

Sunday, October 23, 2016

16C & 17C Elites gather for a concert in a large Formal Garden

Gardens were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation in the centuries before public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic.  For recreation, elites enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others.


Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) In the Park of a Classic Palace

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Saturday, October 22, 2016

Sports & Games - Brawling - 17C Outside a Local Tavern or Inn

Outdoor spaces were the scene of amusements & even occasional fights at everyday inns & taverns in the centuries before more refined commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. Public pleasure gardens & grounds became places to meet neighbors & travelers passing through; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to promenade for recreation; to conduct business; to see & be seen.  
Pieter Angillis (Flemish, 1685-1734) Peasants Brawling outside a local Tavern

Friday, October 21, 2016

16C & 17C Elites at The Escorial, near Madrid,

Royal Gardens were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation for the upper classes & royalty in the centuries before more egalitarian commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites also enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others. Later, Public Pleasure Gardens & Grounds became acceptable places to meet neighbors & travelers passing through; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to promenade for recreation; to conduct business; to see & be seen.


Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) In the Gardens at The Escorial, near Madrid, Spain. Note: Few, if any, women are depicted on the lower level immediately in front of the entrance to The Escorial, and few are on the upper level.

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Thursday, October 20, 2016

17C Dancing on a Local Tavern or Inn's Garden Terrace

Outdoor spaces were the scene of amusements & recreation at everyday inns & taverns in the centuries before more dignified commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. Public pleasure gardens & grounds became places to meet neighbors & travelers passing through; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to promenade for recreation; to conduct business; to see & be seen.   
Jan Steen (Dutch artist, 1626-1679) The Dancing Couple 1663

Wednesday, October 19, 2016

16C & 17C Elites celebratng with Music & Food in a Private Garden

Exclusive gardens & garden terraces were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation for the upper classes & royalty in the centuries before more egalitarian commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites also enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others. Later, Public Pleasure Gardens & Grounds became acceptable places to meet neighbors & travelers passing through; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to promenade for recreation; to conduct business; to see & be seen.


Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) Dining in a Garden

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Tuesday, October 18, 2016

17C Dinner on a Local Tavern or Inn's Garden Terrace

Outdoor spaces were the scene of amusements & recreation at everyday inns & taverns in the centuries before more dignified commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. Public pleasure gardens & grounds became places to meet neighbors & travelers passing through; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to promenade for recreation; to conduct business; to see & be seen.  
Jan Steen (Dutch artist, 1626-1679) A Meal & Music under the Inn's Garden Arbor 1650

Monday, October 17, 2016

16C & 17C Elites taking a Tour of Local Gardens

Exclusive gardens & garden terraces were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation for the upper classes & royalty in the centuries before more egalitarian commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites also enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others. Later, Public Pleasure Gardens & Grounds became acceptable places to meet neighbors & travelers passing through; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to promenade for recreation; to conduct business; to see & be seen.


Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) Promenading in a Garden Park Setting

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Sunday, October 16, 2016

17C Dinner at a Local Tavern or Inn 's Garden Terrace

Outdoor spaces were the scene of amusements & recreation at everyday inns & taverns in the centuries before more dignified commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. Public pleasure gardens & grounds became places to meet neighbors & travelers passing through; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to promenade for recreation; to conduct business; to see & be seen.  
Jan Steen (Dutch artist, 1626-1679) The Outdoor Tavern Garden 1660.  Here food & cheer are served to everyday families under a large arbor on one of the little garden terraces, that innkeepers began to attach to their inns during this period for the use of the general populace. 

Saturday, October 15, 2016

16C & 17C Elites Promenading at a large Formal Garden & Park

Exclusive gardens & garden terraces were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation for the upper classes & royalty in the centuries before more egalitarian commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites also enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others. Later, Public Pleasure Gardens & Grounds became acceptable places to meet neighbors & travelers passing through; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to promenade for recreation; to conduct business; to see & be seen.


Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) Allegory Of Spring - Celebrating the Coming of Spring to the Garden

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Friday, October 14, 2016

Exchanging News Outside a Local 17C Tavern or Inn

Outdoor spaces were the scene of amusements & recreation at everyday inns & taverns in the centuries before more dignified commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. Public pleasure gardens & grounds became places to meet neighbors & travelers passing through; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to promenade for recreation; to conduct business; to see & be seen.  
David Teniers the Younger (1610-1690) follower Travelers Outside an Inn. Exchanging news outside the local tavern.

Thursday, October 13, 2016

Sports & Games - General History - Battledore & Shuttlecock

One popular game played in public and private pleasure gardens & garden parklands was Battledore and Shuttlecock.  Since at least the Middle Ages in England, there had been a children's game known as "battledore and shuttlecock."  Adults could not resist the game.
Battledore & Shuttlecock Anonymous 1616 depiction from a 17thC German “Friendship Book." Love the garden.


1620-26 Adriaen van de Venne Two Women Playing Battledore and Shuttlecock. It probably developed in ancient Greece & Rome, moving from there east to China, Japan, & India, and north to France & England.
17th-century French Print Jeu de Volant


Pierre-Antoine Quillard (1700-1733) Elegant Figures Playing Shuttlecock in a Park. It is reported that the sport was sometimes called shuttlefeather, although I cannot find reference to this in the Oxford English Dictionary. 
1610 England. (Probably by a Flemish Artist at the English Court) Boy, about 3 years old, Holding Battledore and Shuttlecock.


Daniel Chodowiecki (1726–1801) Battledore and Shuttlecock Indoors 1774


Giuseppe Zocchi (Italian, c. 1716-1767), Battledore and Shuttlecock. Players used a paddle, called a battledore, to keep a cork stuffed with feathers, called a shuttlecock, in the air for as long as possible. The battledore was a small, lightweight racket made of parchment or rows of gut stretched across wooden frames. Battledore was originally the name given to a wooden bat used for beating clothes during washing in England.
Frances Delaval (1759–1839), (Later Mrs Fenton), with Her Sister, Sarah Delaval (1763–1800), (Later Countess of Tyrconnel), Shuttlecock and Battledore in an Interior by William Bell 1771. 
Because the shuttlecock was a feathered projectile, its inherent aerodynamic properties made it fly through the air differently than the more ordinary balls used in most racquet sports. The feathers created higher drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate more rapidly than a ball. On the other hand, shuttlecocks had a higher top speed compared to balls in similar racquet sports, so shuttlecocks could be a little tricky to control.
1740 France. Jean-Baptiste-Simeion Chardin (1699-1779). Young Girl with Battledore and Shuttlecock. 
Since shuttlecock flight could usually affected by wind (because of its lightness), the game was sometimes played indoors. It was usually played outdoors during warm weather as a casual recreational activity, often in private & commercial pleasure gardens. By the 16th century, it had become widely popular among children in England. In Europe this racquet sport was known as Jeu de Volant and was popular with the upper classes. Battledore and shuttlecock was not a competitive sport. 
Battledore and Shuttlecock Fireplace or wall tile by John Sadler, Liverpool, 1757-1761. Probably the most intriguing aspect of the game was that it was a cooperative sport with the players trying to see how long they could keep the shuttlecock in the air. It did not pit player against player, a rather refreshing concept in the 21C. The game was usually played by children, families, and young adults during the 18C. 
Battledore & Shuttlecock A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, Intended for the Instruction and Amusement of Little Master Tommy, and Pretty Miss Poll” by Isaiah Thomas, Worcester, Massachusetts 1787


Battledore and Shuttlecock Enamel on copper box 1760-75

Battledore & Shuttlecock Portrait of a Boy, c.1758-1760, by John Singleton Copley



Battledore & Shuttlecock John Donnelly at 9 years old, Blackwater Town, a small village in the townland of Lisbofin, County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

Nathaniel Parr (1723–1751) After Francis Hayman, (1707/8–1776 Indoor Battledore and Shuttlecock. played indoors often produced predictable havoc with indoor furnishings and decorative objects. Indoor games did not often use a net, but they became more aggressive in the later part of the century.
Francis Hayman, (17078–1776) Battledore & Shuttlecock 


Battledore and Shuttlecock 1780-1800, English Printed Textile. Jane Austen played the game with her nephews. In 1808, she wrote, "Yesterday was a very quiet day with us; my noisiest efforts were writing to Frank, and playing at battledore and shuttlecock with William; he and I have practised together two mornings, and improve a little; we have frequently kept it up three times, and once or twice six."  In the 1840s, Charlotte Bronte wrote in Jane Eyre, "But I stayed out a few minutes longer with Adele and Pilot—ran a race with her, and played a game of battledore and shuttlecock."
Published by Aaron Martinet A fashionable couple play badminton with a shuttlecock, watched by a couple and a man drinking at a tavern table. c.1802