Saturday, December 31, 2016

Friday, December 30, 2016

Wednesday, December 28, 2016

Tuesday, December 27, 2016

16C & 17C Elites attend a Garden Concert

Gardens were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation in the centuries before public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others.


Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) Making Music in a Garden

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Monday, December 26, 2016

16C & 17C Elites Promenade in Gardens

Gardens were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation in the centuries before public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others.


Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) Walking on a Terrace

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Saturday, December 24, 2016

17C Elite celebrate in a Garden

Gardens were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation in the centuries before public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others.

Esaias van de Velde (Dutch painter, 1587-1630) The Garden Party

Friday, December 23, 2016

Sharing News & Music at a a Local Tavern or Inn

Outdoor spaces were the scene of amusements & recreation at everyday taverns in the centuries before commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. Public pleasure gardens & grounds became places to meet neighbors & travelers passing through; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to promenade for recreation; to conduct business; to see & be seen.   


 Adriaen Jansz Van Ostade (1610-1685) Merry Peasants. Music outside the local tavern.

Thursday, December 22, 2016

17C Elite celebration on a Garden Terrace

Gardens were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation in the centuries before public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. Gardens were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation in the centuries before public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others.


Jan Miense Molenaer (Dutch Baroque Era Painter, ca.1610-1668) Merry Company on the Garden Terrace

Wednesday, December 21, 2016

A Party for Elites in an idyllic Parkland near a Villa.

Dirk Hals 1591-1656 A Party in idyllic Parkland near a Villa. The guests in festive clothes eating, drinking, making music.

Sunday, December 18, 2016

17C Elites Dining on the Terrace at a Private Garden

Exclusive gardens & garden terraces were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation for the upper classes & royalty in the centuries before more egalitarian commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites also enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others. Later, Public Pleasure Gardens & Grounds became acceptable places to meet neighbors & travelers passing through; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to promenade for recreation; to conduct business; to see & be seen.
1620 Esaias van den Velde (Dutch painter, 1587-1630) The Garden Party

Friday, December 16, 2016

16C & 17C Elites Feast in a Castle Park

Gardens were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation in the centuries before public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others.

Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) Feast in a Castle Park

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Wednesday, December 14, 2016

16C Elites making Music & Feasting in a Garden

Gardens were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation in the centuries before public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others.


Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) Making Music in the Garden

Monday, December 12, 2016

Saturday, December 10, 2016

Elite 17C Garden Celebration with random dogs & peacocks & music

Jan Steen (Dutch artist, 1626-1679) Garden Party 1677

Dutch artist Jan Steen (1626-1569) is best known for his upbeat genre paintings depicting scenes from everyday life. Genre painting in the Netherlands began with images of proverbs, allegories, & folklore by 16C artists, among them Pieter Breugel the Elder (1528-1569).  By the early 1600s, the Netherlands had come to prosper through trade & commerce. Soon a new middle-class emerged which could accumulate enough money to buy decorative items for their homes. Artists began to create images for this new type of buyer, usually subjects that they would see around them in their daily lives. Unlike the high art paintings, that the very wealthy would specially commission from artists, genre works were sold on the free market to anyone who could afford to buy them.

Wednesday, December 7, 2016

17C Children of Privilege playing Boules

Nicolas Arnoult (French, c 1650–c 1722) c 1687-1690 Three youngsters playing boules, as two well-dressed ladies promenade.

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Boules in 1802 France

Five elderly men playing at boules; behind two dogs and an elegant lady. c.1802 in Paris

Boules is a term for a wide range of games in which the objective is to throw or roll heavy (often metal) balls (called boules in France, and bocce in Italy) as close as possible to a small target ball. Boules-type games are traditional and popular in France, Italy, Malta and Croatia, and some former French colonies. Boules games are often played in open spaces (town squares and parks) in villages and towns. Dedicated playing areas for boules-type games are typically large, level, rectangular courts made of flattened earth, gravel, or crushed stone, enclosed in wooden rails or back boards.
In the south of France, the word boules is also often used as a synonym for pétanque.

There is a wide variation in the size and materials of the balls used in boules-type games. Originally, in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome, the balls were probably made of stone. Gallic tribes, which were introduced to boules by the Romans, used wooden boules. In the 1800s in France, boules were typically made of a very hard wood, boxwood root. In the mid-1800s techniques were developed for the mass production of iron nails. Following this technological improvement, boxwood balls studded with nails (boules cloutées) were introduced in an effort to improve the durability of the balls. This eventually lead to the development of balls that were completely covered in nails, creating a ball that appeared almost to be made of metal. By the 1920s, the growing popularity of boules in France created a demand that could not be satisfied using the available supplies of natural boxwood root, which were beginning to disappear. Paul Courtieu and Vincent Miles had the idea of manufacturing a ball made entirely of metal. Avoiding steel-based alloys (which were too hard and rust-prone) they developed an alloy based on aluminum and bronze, and (in 1923) patented a metal ball made of two welded-together hemispheres. A year later, in 1924, they filed a patent for a ball that was cast in a single piece -- La Boule intégrale. Other companies began manufacturing metal balls in a variety of metals and metal alloys, including bronze. The wooden balls used in bocce tend to be bigger than the smaller (but denser) metal balls used in pétanque.

Types of boules games include:
Bocce is the ancestral sport of most boules games. It is a rolling game using wooden balls and a run-up throwing technique.
Boules, otherwise known as Pétanque, is perhaps the sport that is closest to the hearts of the French [3]
Bocce volo is a throwing game using metal balls and a rather complicated run-up.
Boccia is a form of bocce adapted for players who are confined to wheel chairs.
Bolas criollas is a bocce-like game played in Venezuela
Bowls or "lawn bowls" is a British game similar to bocce
Jeu provençal or boule lyonnaise, similar to bocce volo
Pétanque originally evolved from jeu provençal as an adaptation for a player with a disability affecting the legs. However, it quickly became popular among able-bodied players. It is a throwing game using metal balls, but there is no run-up.P layers' feet must remain firmly on the ground.
Punto, raffa, volo (note that this is a single name consisting of three comma-separated words) is a type of bocce

Monday, December 5, 2016

16C & 17C Elites at a Banquet in a Garden

Gardens were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation in the centuries before public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others.


Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) Banquet in Garden

Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622) also known as Luis de Koller, Luis de Kaulleri, Louis de Coulery, specialized in genre, allegory, architecture, & landscape painting.  Like many Flemish artists of the period, he had traveled to & worked in Italy. A circle of like-minded artists gathered around him in Antwerp, painting scenes of banquets, balls, carnivals, & other celebrations often in gardens. The architecture & the parterres of the gardens are precisely drawn, often in skillfully telescoped perspective.

Sunday, December 4, 2016

16C & 17C Elites at a A Formal Garden with Couples Dancing

Exclusive gardens & garden terraces were the scene of outdoor amusements & recreation for the upper classes & royalty in the centuries before more egalitarian commercial public pleasure gardens blossomed on both sides of the Atlantic. For recreation, elites also enjoyed promenading, especially in a public place, to meet or to be seen & admired by others. Later, Public Pleasure Gardens & Grounds became acceptable places to meet neighbors & travelers passing through; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to promenade for recreation; to conduct business; to see & be seen.


Attributed to Louis de Caullery (Dutch-Flemish artist, 1555-1622)  A Formal Garden with Couples Dancing

Saturday, December 3, 2016

Making Merry at London's 1400s Public Taverns & Inns

Medieval Inn & Tavern Names
From Medievalists.net – January 31, 2014


British Library Medieval, Additional 27695, c. 1330-40

Inns in 15C London offered food & drink & games both indoors & outdoords. This blog traces the evolution of Public Pleasure Gardens & Public Parks & Grounds which often began as local taverns & inns, which became gathering places to mingle with neighbors & strangers; to exchange news; to meet lovers; to play & watch sports & games; to eat & drink; to watch entertainments; to conduct business; & to see & be seen. It is not possible to know if the following inns offered both inside & open air services & spaces to their patrons.

From 1423 to 1426 the names of over 50 taverns & inns were recorded by William Porland, who was the clerk for London’s fraternity of Brewers. In an article in the Journal of the English Place Name Society, Barrie Cox takes a look at these names & some of the reasons how they got them. Here are few:

1. The Swan – this was the most popular name, with 6 taverns in London using it. Other taverns were named for birds as well, including The Crane & The Cock. There were even taverns called The White Cock & The Red Cock.

2. The Dolphin (Dolphyn) was the name of a tavern near St. Magnus’ Church. Other animal names for taverns include The Horse, The Lamb & The Old Bull.

3. The Seven Stars (vij Sterres) – according to medieval knowledge, the 7 stars represented the sun, the moon, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus & Mercury. Another tavern had the name The Three Moons.

4. The King’s Head (kyngeshed) – a few other taverns had a similar name, including The Horse’s Head, The Ram’s Head & The Saracen’s Head

5. Two taverns were named after saints: The Christopher, after the patron saint of travellers, & The St. Julian, who was the patron saint of hospitality.

6. The Pewter Pot (peauterpotte) could be found in Ironmonger Lane in Cheapside. It probably got its name for a type of drinking vessel.

7. The Pannier (panyer) on Paternoster Rowe would have been based on the French word panier, which means bread basket. Barrie Cox writes “this seems appropriate as a name for a lowly eating- & drinking-house.”

8. The Cony (Cony yn Conyhooplane) was a Middle English word for a rabbit, leading Cox to believe “the name suggests a small tavern where a rabbit stew could be enjoyed.”

Other names of medieval taverns include The Ball, The Basket, The Bell, The Cross, The Cup, The Garland, The Green Gate, The Hammer, The Lattice, The Rose & 2 that were called The Ship.

Barrie Cox’ article ‘Some London Inn & Tavern Names 1423-1426′ appears the Journal of the English Place Name Society, Vol.30(1997-8). He also wrote the book English Inn & Tavern Names, which was published in 1994 & is available from the Institute for Name Studies, University of Nottingham.

Friday, December 2, 2016

A most elegant 18C game of Skittles accompanied by Music

Johan Franz Hörmannsperger (Austrian, 1710-?) Music and Bowling 1736 from his private albumn shows artist/tailor bowling in a Baroque garden on the weekend with his tailor friends. Album of the Imperial blanket maker J. F. Hörmannsperger. Baroque pattern book and album of the blanket maker Johann Franz Hörmannsperger. Vienna. A unique document of late Baroque craftsmanship among the urban Third Estate. These gouaches showing the self-assured 26 year-old author practicing his trade in his workshop, advertising and selling his wares to customers, as well as playing music and even bowling.

Inscription for this image: "All gay and jolly, for we are journeymen of the trade: and so the virgins may be; they will not be bored - here is red wine and white, so well we may make merry."

Thursday, December 1, 2016

18C Grounds for Gentlemen & for Everyone Else including Monkeys

Skittles Rules and instructions for playing at skittles. By a Society of Gentlemen 1786


View of a skittle ground at Hampstead, 1796


Children's games, including skittles, played by monkeys. 1593 Etching on paper, produced by Pieter van der Borcht (Flemish printmaker, 1545-1608)  edited by Justus Sadeler